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Infants and Toddlers (Birth to Age 3)

Potential Topics:

  • Expectations of Developmental Progression
    • Developmental milestones that parents can anticipate
    • Potential developmental delays
  • (The Value of) Early Intervention Services
    • How & Where to get these services
  • Habilitation Issues
    • Mobility
    • Toileting
    • Nutrition
  • Medical Issues
    • Unstable Hip
    • Shunt Function & Malfunction
    • Arnold-Chiari Malformation – a congenital anomaly of the brain that occurs in almost all children born with both spina bifida and hydrocephalus, In infants, the most common symptoms are stridor and swallowing difficulties. In older children, upper limb weakness and breathing difficulties may occur. Patients may experience no symptoms or remain asymptomatic until early adulthood, at which point they will often experience severe headaches and neck pain. Fatigue, dizziness, vertigo, neuropathic pain, visual disturbances, difficulty swallowing, ringing in the ears, impaired fine motor skills, muscle weakness, and palpitations are other common symptoms. Some patients may go an entire lifetime without having noticeable symptoms. Or, symptoms can be minimal, then turn severe suddenly due to head trauma which alters the condition of the spine, brain, or cerebellar tonsils and begins to cause more difficulties. Once these “onset of symptoms” occurs, the most frequent treatment is decompression surgery, in which a neurosurgeon seeks to open the base of the skull and through various methods unrestrict CSF flow to the spine.
    • Failure to Thrive
    • Strabismus – also known as “heterotropia”, “squint”, “crossed eye”, “cockeyed’, “wandering eye”, or “wall eyed”, is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other.